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2020-07-23 14:32:00来源:网络

  频道为备考的同学们整理了2020年9月长篇阅读模拟题,希望可以为大家带来帮助。

  2020年9月大学平安彩票app下载考试长篇阅读模拟题(汇总)

  Section B

  Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived.

  You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

  Robot Management

  A. Robots have been the stuff of science fiction for so long that it is surprisingly hard to see them as the stuff of management fact. A Czech playwright, Karel Capek, gave them their name in 1920 (from the Slavonic word for "work" ). An American writer, Isaac Asimov, confronted them with their most memorable dilemmas.

  Hollywood turned them into superheroes and supervillains. When some film critics drew up lists of Hollywood's 50 greatest good guys and 50 greatest baddies, the only character to appear on both lists was a robot, the Terminator.

  B. It is time for management thinkers to catch up with science-fiction writers. Robots have been doing auxiliary jobs on production lines since the 1960s. The world already has more than lm industrial robots. There is now an acceleration in the rates at which they are becoming both cleverer and cheaper: an explosive combination.

  Robots are learning to interact with the world around them. Their ability to see things is getting ever closer to that of humans, as is their capacity to ingest information and act on it. Tomorrow's robots will increasingly take on delicate, complex tasks. And instead of being imprisoned in cages to stop them colliding with people, they will be free to wander.

  C. America's armed forces have blazed a trail here. They now have no fewer than 12,000 robots serving in their ranks. Peter Singer, of the Brookings Institution, a think-tank (智囊团), says mankind's 5,000-year monopoly on the fighting of war is breaking down. Recent additions to the battlefield include tiny "insects" that perform reconnaissance (侦查) missions and giant "dogs" to terrify enemies. The Pentagon is also working on the EATR, a robot that fuels itself by eating whatever biomass (生物量) it finds around it.

  D. But the civilian world cannot be far behind. Who better to clean sewers or suck up nuclear waste than these remarkable machines? The Japanese have made surprisingly little use of robots to clear up after the recent earthquake, given their world leadership in this area. They say that they had the wrong sort of robots in the wrong places. But they have issued a global call for robotic assistance and are likely to put more robots to work shortly.

  E. As robots advance into the service industries they are starting to look less like machines and more like living creatures. The Paro (made by AIST, a Japanese research agency) is shaped like a baby seal and responds to attention. Honda's robot, ASIMO, is humanoid and can walk, talk and respond to commands.

  F.Until now executives have largely ignored robots, regarding them as an engineering rather than a management problem. This cannot go on: robots are becoming too powerful and ubiquitous (无处不在的). Companies may need to rethink their strategies as they gain access to these new sorts of workers. Do they really need to outsource production to China, for example, when they have clever machines that work ceaselessly without pay? They certainly need to rethink their human-resources policies--starting by questioning whether they should have departments devoted to purely human resources.

  G.The first issue is how to manage the robots themselves. Asimov laid down the basic rule in 1942: no robot should harm a human. This rule has been reinforced by recent technological improvements: robots are now much more sensitive to their surroundings and can be instructed to avoid hitting people. But the Pentagon's plans make all this a bit more complicated: many of its robots will be, in essence, killing machines.

  H. A second question is how to manage the homo side of homo-robo relations. Workers have always worried that new technologies will take away their livelihoods, ever since the original Luddites' fears about mechanised looms. That worry takes on a particularly intense form when the machines come with a human face: Capek's play that gave robots their name depicted a world in which they initially brought lots of benefits but eventually led to mass unemployment and discontent. Now, the arrival of increasingly humanoid automatons in workplaces, in an era of high unemployment, is bound to provoke a reaction.

  I.So, companies will need to work hard to persuade workers that robots are productivity-enhancers, not just job- eating aliens. They need to show employees that the robot sitting alongside them can be more of a helpmate than a threat. Audi has been particularly successful in introducing industrial robots because the carmaker asked workers to identify areas where robots could improve performance and then gave those workers jobs overseeing the robots. Employers also need to explain that robots can help preserve manufacturing jobs in the rich world: one reason why Germany has lost fewer such jobs than Britain is that it has five times as many robots for every 10,000 workers.

  J.These two principles--don't let robots hurt or frighten people--are relatively simple. Robot scientists are tackling more complicated problems as robots become more sophisticated. They are keen to avoid hierarchies (层级) among rescue-robots (because the loss of the leader would render the rest redundant). So they are using game theory to make sure the robots can communicate with each other in egalitarian (平等) ways. They are keen to avoid duplication between robots and their human handlers. So they are producing more complicated mathematical formulae in order that robots can constantly adjust themselves to human intentions.

  This suggests that the world could be on the verge of a great management revolution: making robots behave like humans rather than the 20th century's preferred option, making humans behave like robots.

  46. Tomorrow's robots will be free to move around rather than being locked up in cages so as not to hurt people.

  47. It is not easy for people to regard robots as management stuff, for the later are mostly seen in science fictions.

  48. Robots appear more like living creatures as they enter into the service industry.

  49. According to the Pentagon's plans, many of its robots will essentially become killing machines.

  50. The Japanese didn't use a lot of robots to clear up after the recent earthquake, considering their world leadership in the robot field.

  51. Companies should show their workers that robots can be more of a helper rather than a threat to them.

  52. The fact that more and more human-like robots are used in workplaces will surely arouse reaction in a time of high unemployment.

  53. Robots, who are considered as an engineering instead of a management problem, have been largely neglected by executives.

  54. Scientists are trying to enable robots to constantly adjust themselves to people's intenlions.

  55. The example that Germany has lost fewer manufacturing jobs than Britain shows that robots can help preserve manufacturing jobs in the rich world.

  【参考译文】

  管理机器人

  A.[47]很久以来。机器人都被认为是科幻小说里的东西,因此人们很难将它们视为管理的对象。捷克剧作家KarelCapek于1920年将它们命名为“机器人”(来源于斯拉夫语中的“工作”一词)。在美国作家Isaac Asimov的笔下,机器人面对了令它们最为难忘的抉择。好莱坞把机器人变成了超级英雄和超级恶魔。

  在由电影评论家总结出的好莱坞50个最好角色和50个最坏角色的名单上,唯一一个同时登上两份榜单的角色就是一个机器人——终结者。

  B.现在到了管理思想家跟上科幻小说作家步伐的时候了。自20世纪60年代起机器人就在生产线上做一些辅助工作了。世界上已有超过100万的工业机器人。现在机器人变得更聪明、更廉价的速度在不断加快,这两者简直是一种爆炸性的结合。机器人正在学着与周围的世界互动。它们看东西的能力正在变得越来越接近人类,它们获取信息及做出相应反应的能力也在接近人类。未来,机器人将能够从事越来越多精细而复杂的工作。[46]机器人将不会再被关起来以防止它们与人们发生冲突,而是可以自由移 动。

  C.美国军队已经在这方面开拓了一条道路。他们现在有不少于l2000个机器人正在服役。智囊团布鲁金斯学会的PeterSinger说,5000年来只有人类参与战争的局面正在被打破。近来被增派到战场的机器人包括执行侦察任务的小“昆虫”和恫吓敌人的大“狗”。五角大楼还在研发一种强动力自动战术机器人,它们可以通过吞食其周边的生物量来补给自己的能量。

  D.但机器人在民用方面也没有落后太远。有谁能比这些神奇的设备更适于清洁下水道或清理核废料呢?[50]日本人在近期的一次震后清理中所用的机器人数量惊人地少,即使他们在这一领域处于世界领先地位。他们说他们在错误的地点选择了错误的机器人类别。但是他们已经率先在全球范围内呼吁寻求机器人的援助.而且似乎马上就会投入更多的机器人进行作业。

  E.[48]当机器人进入到服务产业时,它们开始变得不像机器,而更像生物了。日本产业技术研究院是一所研发机构,它们制作的机器人Paro形似一只小海豹,并能对命令做出回应。本田公司研制的机器人ASIM0具有很多人类的特征,它能够走路、说话以及回应命令。

  F.[53]时至今日,管理人员一直在很大程度上忽视了机器人,把它们当做工程问题而不是管理问题。这种现象不能再继续下去了:机器人正变得功能强大且无处不在。随着企业可以使用机器人这种新型员工,它们可能需要重新考虑自身的人力资源战略了。例如,在拥有不计报酬、可以持续工作的智能机器的情况下,它们是否真的需要把产品外包给中国加工?它们必然要重新考虑它们的人力资源政策——就从质疑是否应该有一个纯粹管理人力资源的部门开始。

  G.第一个问题是如何管理机器人本身。Asimov在1942年确立了基本原则:机器人不能伤害人类。这一原则已经通过近年来的技术改良得以加强:现在的机器人对于它们周围的事物更加敏感,还可以遵照指示避免袭击人类。[49]但是五角大楼的计划使得这一切变堡更为复杂:从本质上来说,它们所制造的机器人有很多将成为杀人机器。

  H.第二个问题是如何处理人与机器人的关系中人类这一方的问题。从最初的科技反对者恐惧机械织布机开始,劳动者们总是担心新技术会抢走他们的饭碗。当机器以人类的面孔出现时,那种担忧变得尤为强烈:capek那部给机器人取名字的戏剧中描绘了这样一个世界:起初,机器人带来了很多好处,最终,它们却导致了大量的失业和不满。[52]在现在这样一个高失业率的时代,工作场所越来越多地使用类人机器人必然会激起反对。

  I.所以,企业必须努力使工人相信机器人有助于提高产量,而不只是吞噬职位的外来者。[51]它们需要展现给员工们看:坐在他们身边的机器人更多的是他们的帮手,而不是威胁。奥迪在引进工业机器人方面一直做得特别成功,因为这家汽车制造商让员工去发现那些机器人可以改进工作的领域,然后将监管那些机器人的岗位提供给员工。[55]企业还需要阐明,机器人有助于保留富有国家的生产岗位:德国之所以没有象英国一样丧失如此之多的生产岗位,原因之一就是,在德国,每一万名工人所对应的机器人数量是英国的5倍。

  J.这两条原则,即不要让机器人伤害或吓到人类,是相对简单的。随着机器人变得日益复杂,机器人科学家们正着手处理更复杂的问题。他们尽量不在救援机器人中分出三六九等(因为一旦没有带头的机器人,其他的机器人就显得多余了)。所以他们利用游戏理论来确保机器人能以平等的方式互相交流。他们尽力避免机器人与它们的人类操作者的作用重叠。[54]因此他们正在计算更多复杂的数学公式以使机器人能够依照人类的意愿不断地进行自我调节。这表明世界即将发生一次重大的管理变革:让机器人的行为更像人类,而不是像20世纪所倾向的那样,使人类的行为日益向机器人靠拢。

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