平安彩票真人视讯

2020-07-22 14:11:00来源:网络

  频道为备考的同学们整理了2020年9月长篇阅读模拟题,希望可以为大家带来帮助。

  2020年9月大学平安彩票app下载考试长篇阅读模拟题(汇总)

  Section B

  Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived.

  You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

  A University Degree No Longer Confers Financial Security

  A.Millions of school-leavers in the rich world are about to bid a tearful goodbye to their parents and start a new life at university. Some are inspired by a pure love of learning. But most also believe that spending three or four years at university--and accumulating huge debts in the process--will boost their chances of landing a well-paid and secure job.

  B.Their elders have always told them that education is the best way to equip themselves to thrive in a globalised world. Blue-collar workers will see their jobs outsourced and automated, the familiar argument goes. School dropouts will have to cope with a life of cash-strapped (资金紧张的) insecurity. But the graduate elite will have the world at its feet. There is some evidence to support this view. A recent study from Georgetown University's Centre on Education and the Workforce argues that"obtaining a post-secondary credential ( 证书) is almost always worth it." Educational qualifications are tightly correlated with earnings: an American with a professional degree can expect to pocket $3.6m over a lifetime; one with merely a high- school diploma can expect only $1.3m. The gap between more- and less-educated earners may be widening. A study in 2002 found that someone with a bachelor's degree could expect to earn 75% more over a lifetime than someone with only a high-school diploma. Today the disparity is even greater.

  C.But is the past a reliable guide to the future? Or are we at the beginning of a new phase in the relationship between jobs and education? There are good reasons for thinking that old patterns are about to change--and that the current recession-driven downturn (衰退) in the demand for Western graduates will morph (改变) into something structural. The strong wind of creative destruction that has shaken so many blue-collar workers over the past few decades is beginning to shake the cognitive elite as well.

  D.The supply of university graduates is increasing rapidly. The Chronicle of Higher Education calculates that between 1990 and 2007 the number of students going to university increased by 22% in North America, 74% in Europe, 144% in Latin America and 203% in Asia. In 2007 150m people attended university around the world, including 70m in Asia. Emerging economies—specially China--are pouring resources into building universities that can compete with the elite of America and Europe. They are also producing professional- services firms snch as Tata Consulting Services and Infosys that take fresh graduates and turn them into world-class computer programmers and consultants. The best and the brightest of the rich world must increasingly compete with the best and the brightest from poorer countries who are willing to work harder for less money.

  E. At the same time, the demand for educated labor is being reconfigured (重新配置) by technology, in much the same way that the demand for agricultural labor was reconfigured in the 19th century and that for factory labor in the 20th. Computers can not only perform repetitive mental tasks much faster than human beings. They can also empower amateurs to do what professionals once did: why hire a flesh-and-blood accountant to complete your tax return when Turbotax (a software package ) will do the job at a fraction of the cost? And the variety of jobs that computers can do is multiplying as programmers teach them to deal with tone and linguistic ambiguity.

  F.Several economists, including Paul Krugman, have begun to argue that post-industrial societies will be characterized not by a relentless rise in demand for the educated but by a great "hollowing out", as mid-level jobs are destroyed by smart machines and high-level job growth slows. David Autor, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), points out that the main effect of automation in the computer era is not that it destroys blue-collar jobs but that it destroys any job that can be reduced to a routine. Alan Blinder of Prinon University, argues that the jobs graduates have traditionally performed are if anything more "offshorable" than low-wage ones. A plumber or lorry-driver's job cannot be outsourced to India. A computer programmer's can.

  G. A university education is still a prerequisite for entering some of the great industries, such as medicine, law and academia (学术界), that provide secure and well-paying jobs. Over the 20th century these industries did a wonderful job of raising barriers to entry--sometimes for good reasons (nobody wants to be operated on by a barber) and sometimes for self-interested ones. But these industries are beginning to bend the roles. Newspapers are fighting a losing battle with the blogosphere. Universities are replacing tenure-track professors with non-tenured staff. Law firms are contracting out routine work such as"discovery" (digging up documents relevant to a lawsuit) to computerized-search specialists such as Blackstone Discovery. Even doctors are threatened, as patients find advice online and treatment in Walmart's new health centers.

  H.Thomas Malone of MIT argues that these changes--automation, globalizafion and deregulation--may be part of a bigger change: the application of the division of labor to brain-work. Adam Smith's factory managers broke the production of pins into 18 components. In the same way, companies are increasingly breaking the production of brain-work into ever tinier slices. TopCoder chops up IT projects into bite-sized chunks and then serves them up to a worldwide workforce of freelance coders.

  I.These changes will undoubtedly improve the productivity of brain-workers. They will allow consumers to sidestep (规避 ) the professional industries that have extracted high rents for their services. And they will empower many brain-workers to focus on what they are best at and contract out more tedious tasks to others. But the reconfiguration of brain-work will also make life far less cozy and predictable for the next generation of graduates.

  46. The creative destruction that has happened to blue-collar workers in the past also starts to affect the cognitive elite.

  47. For the next generation of graduates, life will be far less comfortable and predictable with brain-work reconfigured.

  48. After computers are taught by programmers to deal with tone and linguistic ambiguity, the variety of jobs they can do will increase dramatically.

  49. Most school-leavers believe that, despite the huge debts they owe, going to university will increase their chances of getting secure jobs with high salaries.

  50. Modern companies are more likely to break the production of intellectual work into ever tinier slices.

  51. A scholar of Princeton University claims that the jobs traditionally taken by graduates are more likely to be offshored than low-wage ones.

  52. The income gap between an American professional degree holder and an American high-school graduate shows income is closely related to educational qualifications.

  53. The changes in the division of brain-work will save consumers some high service fees the professional organizations charge.

  54. Some students have always been told that. to achieve success in a globalised world, it is most advisable to equip themselves with education.

  55. Emerging economies are providing a lot of resources to build universities to compete with the elite of America and Europe.

  【参考译文】

  大学文凭不再提供铁饭碗

  A.发达国家的数百万高中毕业生将要含泪告别他们的父母,开始全新的大学生活。一些人上大学纯粹是出于对学习的热爱。[49]但大多数毕业生都这样认为:在大学里待三四年,尽管在这期间会欠下很多债务,却可以大大增加他们获得高薪、稳定工作的几率。

  B.[54]他们的长辈们常常告诫他们,在这个全球化的世界中,要想使自己有所发展,最好的办法就是努力学习。人们常说,蓝领工人会发现他们的工作被外包和自动化,中途辍学者会过着经济上无保障的生活,而优秀毕业生则前程似锦。有一些证据支持这种看法。乔治城大学教育和劳动力中心最近的一项研究表明,“获得高等教育的文凭总是物有所值”。[52]学历与收入多少息息相关:一位拥有专业学位的美国人有望在一生中转到360万美元,而若是仅有高中文凭则只能赚到130万。文化程度高与文化程度低的人之间的收入差距可能还在扩大。2002年的一项研究发现,有本科学历的人在一生中会比只有高中学历的人收入高出75%,而如今二者之间的差距变得更大。

  C.但是,过去如此,将来也必然如此吗?还是就业与教育之间的关系即将展开全新的一页?我们有充分的理由相信,旧模式即将发生改变——目前的经济衰退使得西方国家对毕业生的需求量有所减小,这会成为一种结构性的变化。[46]在过去几十年里曾经导致很多蓝领工人失去饭碗的创造性毁灭的风暴。现在也开始撼动文化精英了。

  D.大学毕业生的人数在迅速增加。根据《高等教育编年史》,在1990年到2007年之间,北美的大学生人数增长了22%,欧洲增长了74%,拉美增长了144%,而亚洲则增长了203%。2007年,全球有1.5亿大学新生,其中7000万来自亚洲。[55]新兴经济体,尤其是中国,倾注了众多资源来建设能与美国和欧洲的顶级学府一争高下的大学。这些国家还成立诸如塔塔咨询和印孚瑟斯等专业服务公司来吸纳应届毕业生,并将他们培养成为世界级的电脑程序员和咨询师。发达国家的顶尖人才必须更加努力地与愿意多劳少得的发展中国家的顶尖人才竞争。

  E.与此同时,与19世纪对农业劳动力的需求和20世纪对工业劳动力的需求发生的变革一样,当前由于技术进步,对受过教育的劳动力的需求也正在被重新配置。电脑不仅能以比人类更快的速度完成重复性的思维任务,而且还能够让外行去做专业人士的工作:如果Turbotax(一种软件程序包)能以很低的成本完成纳税申报的话.那何必还要雇佣一名真正的会计来完成这项工作呢?[48]当程序员使电脑能够处理音调和语言歧义的问题后,电脑能够完成的工作类别将会激增。

  F.包括PaulKrugman在内的一些经济学家认为,随着中等水平的工作被智能机器取而代之,而高水平的工作增长放缓,后工业化社会对受教育者的需求并不会持续增加,而将会被挖空。麻省理工大学的DavidAutor指出,电脑时代的自动化的主要影响并不是它毁了蓝领工作,而是毁了所有能转化为执行程序的工作。[51]普林斯顿大学的AlanBlinder认为,比起低收入的工作来说,那些传统意义上由毕业生所从事的工作更可能“被外包”。水管工和货车司机的工作不可能外包到印度去做,而电脑程序员的工作却可以。

  G.在诸如医药、法律和学术这类稳定、高薪的高级行业中,大学学历仍然是至关重要的敲门砖。20世纪以来,这些行业卓有成效地提高了入行门槛,有的是有充分理由的(如:没有人想要理发师来为他们做手术),有的则出于自身利益的考虑。然而这些行业也已经开始有所变通。报纸业正在与博客进行一场胜算渺茫的搏斗,大学正在用一些非终身制的员工代替终身教授,律师事务所将诸如“搜查资料”(即搜寻诉讼相关的文件资料)的日常工作包给了类似BlackstoneDiscovery这样的电脑搜索专家。医生甚至也受到了威胁,因为患者可以在沃尔玛的新健康中心进行在线咨询和治疗。

  H.麻省理工大学的ThomasMalone表示,自动化、全球化和自由化这些变化也许只是更大变革——将劳动分工引入到脑力工作中——的冰山一角。Adam Smith的工厂管理者将大头针的生产线分成了十八道工序。[50]同样:如今的企业将脑力工作划分得超乎以往地细致。TopCoder公司将IT项目分割成块,然后把这些工作分摊给全球的自由程序员。

  I.毫无疑问,这些变化将会提高脑力劳动者的生产率,[53]也可以使消费者能够规避专业性行业收取的一些额的服务费用。而且这将使得许多脑力工作者能够将精力集中在他们最擅长的领域,而将更多枯燥乏味的工作外包给他人。[47]但是,这种脑力工作的重新整合将使下一代毕业生的生活更加艰辛.也更加变幻莫测。

  【答案解析】

  46.C

  解析:题干意为,过去发生在蓝领工人身上的创造性毁灭,现在也开始对文化精英造成影响了。根据题干中的关键信息creative destruction、blue—collar和cognitive elite,便可以很快锁定文中C段。C段最后一句提到,在过去几十年里曾经导致很多蓝领工人失去饭碗的创造性毁灭的风暴,现在也开始撼动文化精英了。由此可知,题干是原文的同义转述,故答案为C。

  47.I

  解析:题干意为,对下一代毕业生来说,由于脑力工作重新整合,他们的生活将会更加艰辛和变幻莫测。注意抓住题干中的关键信息for tlle next generation of graduates和predicmble。文中I段最后一句提到,但是,这种脑力工作的重新整合将使下一代毕业生的生活更加艰辛,也更加变幻莫测。由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述。故答案为I。

  48.E

  解析:题干意为,当程序员教会了电脑处理音调和语言歧义问题后,电脑能够完成的工作种类将显著增多。注意抓住题干中的关键信息toneandlinguistic ambiguity和mevariety ofjobs。文中E段最后一句提到,当程序员使电脑能够处理音调和语言歧义的问题后,电脑能够完成的工作类别将会激增。由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为E。

  49.A

  解析:题干意为,多数毕业生认为,尽管会欠下很多债务,但是上大学会使他们更有可能获得一份薪水较高的稳定工作。注意抓住题干中的关键信息sch001.1eavers、huge debts和chances。文中A段末句提到,大多数毕业生都这样认为:在大学里待三四年可以大大增加他们获得高薪、稳定工作的几率,尽管在这个过程中会欠下很多债务。由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为A。

  50.H

  解析:题干意为,企业越来越倾向于将脑力工作划分得超乎以往地细致。注意抓住题干中的关键信息companies和evertinier slices。文中论及脑力工作分工的内容出现在H段,该段第三句提到,同样,如今的企业将脑力工作划分得超乎以往地细致。由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为H。

  51.F

  解析:题干意为,普林斯顿大学的一位学者认为,那些传统上由毕业生所从事的工作比低薪工作更可能被外包出去。注意抓住题干中的关键信息PrincetonUniversity、traditionally和low.wageones。F段倒数第三句提到,普林斯顿大学的AlanBlinder认为,比起低收入的工作来说,毕业生所从事的传统工作更可能“被外包”。由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为F。

  52.B.

  解析:题干意为,一位拥有专业学位的美国人和仅有高中文凭的美国人之间的收入差距表明,收入与学历息息相关。注意抓住题干中的关键信息gap、professional degree、high—school和educational qualifications。文中论及收入差距的内容出现在B段,该段第七句提到,学历与收入多少息息相关:一位拥有专业学位的美国人有望在一生中赚到360万美元,而若是仅有高中文凭则只能赚到130万。由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为B。

  53.I

  解析:题干意为,脑力工作的细分使消费者能够规避那些专业机构收取的高额服务费。注意抓住题干中的关键信息consumers和professional。文中I段第二句提到,这些变化使消费者能够规避专业性行业收取的一些高额的服务费用。根据上下文,可知“它们”指的是“脑力工作的细化”。由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为I。

  54.B

  解析:题干意为,学生们常常被告知,要想在这个全球化的世界中取得成功,最好的办法就是努力学习。注意抓住题干中的关键信息a globalised world、equip themselves和education。文中B段第一句提到,长辈们常常告诫他们,在这个全球化的世界中,要想使自己有所发展,最好的办法就是努力学习。由此可见。题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为B。

  55.D

  解析:题干意为,新兴经济体正在为建设大学提供大量的资源,以便能与美国和欧洲的顶级学府一争高下。注意抓住题干中的关键信息emerging economies、resources和me elite of America and Europe。文中D段第四句提到,新兴经济体,尤其是中国,倾注了众多资源来建设能与美国和欧洲的顶级学府一争高下的大学。由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为D。

  2020年9月大学平安彩票app下载考试长篇阅读模拟题(汇总)

  编辑推荐:

  2020年6月大学平安彩票app下载阅读200篇汇总

  2020年上半年平安彩票app下载阅读理解长难句解析汇总

  2020年上半年平安彩票app下载阅读之仔细阅读练习题(汇总)

  2020年6月平安彩票app下载阅读态度类词语汇总

  2020年6月平安彩票app下载真题阅读长难句分析汇总

四六级阅读200+提分攻略-【0元领课】

四六级阅读200+提分攻略

四六级阅读3大题型高分实战营

四六级考前30天逆袭攻略-【0元领课】

本文关键字:

2020年四六级考试真题回忆及解析

关注平安彩票在线 回复【四级真题】

更多资料
更多>>
更多内容

2020年7月平安彩票app下载试题答案

关注四六级小助手回复【四级真题】获取

更多>>
  • 9月

    万人在线模考,9月考情实时解析!免费领纸质真题、罗技鼠标、京东购物卡等好礼!

    价格 : ¥0元

    限报人数:10000人

  • 9月11日-17日

    平安彩票名师考前救命点题!直播抽送精美周边,社群打卡赢历年真题!

    价格 : ¥0元

    限报人数:10000人

  • 9月15日-23日

    抓住黄金备考期,4小时快速提升!直播抽送小米电动牙刷、京东购物卡等好礼!

    价格 : ¥0元

    限报人数:10000人

  • 考后出分吐槽

    邀请好友免费领《四六级硬核过级包》,直播抽奖送10大福利!

    价格 : ¥0元

    限报人数:10000人

  • 8月6日-8月14日

    每天半小时,告别懒怂拖。坚持打卡赢神秘大奖!

    价格 : ¥0元

    限报人数:10000人

  • 8月13-24日

    3招巧拆长难句,突破语法难关!抽奖送四六级过级礼盒!

    价格 : ¥0元

    限报人数:10000人

更多公开课>>
更多>>
更多资料